Measuring the Restrictiveness of International Trade Policy by Jim Anderson and Peter Neary was published by MIT Press in 2005. Peter Neary also edited three other books and published over a hundred professional papers. His main research field was international trade theory, where he worked on short- to long-run adjustment, the economics of resource-rich economies (especially the "Dutch Disease"), trade and industrial policy, and the implications of imperfect competition (especially oligopoly) for trade and globalisation, among other topics. He also wrote on consumer theory (including rationing and index numbers), industrial organisation (including the economics of research and development), and macroeconomics (including international macro theory and Irish economic policy).
In addition to his full-time position in Oxford, he was a Research Fellow of the Centre for Economic Policy Research. Other professional activities and honours included the following: