Working Papers

Authors: Tim Jenkinson, Leonie Bell, Department of Economics, University of Oxford.

Jul 2019

This paper examines the impact of a major change in dividend taxation introduced in the UK in July 1997. The reform was structured in such a way that the immediate impact fell almost entirely on the largest investor class in the UK, namely pension funds. We analyse the behaviour of share prices around the ex-dividend day both before and after the reform to test clientele effects and the impact of taxation on the valuation of companies. We find strong clientele effects in the UK, which are consistent with the distortions introduced by the tax system (before the reform dividend income was tax-advantaged in the UK). We also find significant changes in the valuation of dividend income after the reform, in particular for high-yielding companies. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that taxation affects the valuation of companies, and that pension funds were the effective marginal investors for high-yielding companies.

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Authors: Florian Ploeckl

Jul 2019

Urbanization has been extensively used as a proxy for economic activity.  The urban status of settlements is usually determined by an ad hoc population size household.  This paper proposes a new threshold, taking into account the effect of local agricultural endowments.  The new population threshold is a population size, such that for smaller settlements these endowments influence their size, while for larger they do not.  This results in an endogeneous, data based threshold.  The idea is practically shown for Saxony in the 19th century.  The relevance of a different classification is demonstrated in four particular examples, the development of urbanization over time, Gibrat's law, the impact of geography on town locations and the spatial relationship between towns and villages.  The resulst demonstrate that the underlying classification scheme matters for the conclusions drawn from urban data.

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Authors: Mark Armstrong,John Vickers

Jul 2019

We present a tractable class of multiproduct monopoly models that involve a generalized form of homothetic preferences. This class includes CES, linear and logit demand. Within the class, profit-maximizing quantities are proportional to efficient quantities. We discuss cost-passthrough, including cases where optimal prices do not depend on other products’costs. We show how the analysis can be extended to Cournot oligopoly. Finally, we discuss optimal monopoly regulation when the firm has private information about its vector of marginal costs, and show that if the probability distribution over costs satisfies an independence property, then optimal regulation leaves relative price decisions to the firm.

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