Endogenous Gender Roles: Evidence from Africa’s Gold Mining Industry

Feb 2019 | 209

Authors: Anja Tolonen


Does industrial development change gender roles? This is the first paper to causally explore the effects of a continent-wide expansion of a modern industry on gender roles, captured by attitudes and behaviors. Identification relies on plausibly exogenous spatial-temporal variation in gold mining in Africa. The establishment of industrial-scale mines induces female empowerment—justification of domestic violence decreases by 19%, women have better access to healthcare, and are 31% more likely to work in services— alongside rapid economic growth. Findings are robust to assumptions about trends, distance, and migration and show that gender roles can change rapidly with economic development.

Revised February 2019

JEL Codes: O12; O13; J16

Keywords: Gender Roles, Female Empowerment, Local Industrial Development, Gold Mining


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